Adams, 32, "was off-duty and in plain clothes at the time of the incident," police said in a news release. The shooting stemmed from a domestic dispute, according to the release.
In a statement posted on Facebook, officials with the Madison County Sheriff's Office confirmed Adams's arrest.
"It's a sad day for all Law Enforcement officers," deputies said in the statement. "Please, please, say a prayer for the MCSO family and the family of the victim."
Adams joined the Madison County Sheriff's Office in August 2018, The Atlanta Journal-Constitution reported, citing Georgia Peace Officer Standards and Training Records. He previously worked for a few days at the Royston Police Department and for four years before that at the Statesboro Police Department, according to the Journal-Constitution. Records obtained by the newspaper showed he voluntarily resigned from both those positions.
Adams was being held Monday morning in Clarke County Jail, according to the Journal-Constitution. The newspaper reported his bond was not immediately determined.